Notes of sightseeing enthusiasts


Mołdawia, Naddniestrze, Rumunia - trasa wycieczki


Hospodar Stefan III the Great was one of the most outstanding Moldavian rulers. He won the throne of Moldova in 1457 and, in the initial period of his rule, he tried to maintain good relations with two powerful neighbors - Poland and Turkey. The vassal arrangement with the Jagiellons cost him the loss of Khotyn, and the peace on the part of Turkey was paid for with annual tribute. Failures during the attempts to create an anti-Turkish coalition resulted in his acknowledging Polish sovereignty by paying tribute to Kazimierz Jagiellończyk in Kolomyia in 1485. The expedition of Jan Olbracht from 1497 to recapture the Black Sea ports of Kilia and Białogród, as a result of Hungarian intrigues, caused Stefan to break his fief relationship with Poland. In response to this act, the troops of the Polish king besieged Suceava, but in the face of Stefan cutting them off from supplies and the specter of hunger, a truce was concluded and the Poles began to retreat. As a result of a misunderstanding, Stefan hit the Poles retreating towards Sniatyn and smashed them near Koźmin in the Bukovina forests. It is from this period that the saying "the nobility perished under King Olbracht". The following year, the hospodar traveled to Poland, ravaging the borderland. Peace with the Commonwealth was signed in 1499, and Moldavia became a Turkish fief.

Stefan III Wielki


Like Moldova, which was a fief of the Polish Republic in the 14th and 15th centuries, the fortress in Soroki has Polish accents. In the Middle Ages, the Genoese erected a stronghold here called Olchiona, which guarded the crossing on the Dniester. The stone fortress on a circular plan with a diameter of 37 meters was built by Prince Stefan III the Great, and in the next century it was expanded in a brick form by Piotr Raresz. Despite these actions, in the 17th century, Soroki fell prey to the rebellious Cossacks. In 1692, the fortress was captured by the Polish army under the command of Stanisław Druszkiewicz, the castellan of Chełm, and then manned by the Polish crew of Krzysztof Rapp. At that time, the moats were deepened, casemates for ammunition were built, the courtyard was filled up, the embankments were strengthened and a new quadrangular well was dug. The modernization works undertaken allowed the Polish crew to fight off a six-week siege of Turkish troops in 1699. Poles voluntarily left the fortress under the provisions of the Treaty of Karlowitz.

Obelisk upamiętniający żołnierzy Rzeczypospolitej, którzy zginęli w walkach o twierdzę w Sorokach


The fortress in Targu Neamt was erected at the end of the 14th century, but its heyday falls during the reign of Stefan the Great. As in Suceava, he added a ring of walls with additional semicircular towers. Poles first appeared in Targ Neamt in 1600, taking it from the hands of Michael the Brave Hospodar of Wallachia and handing over the ruler of Moldova to Jeremy Mohyle. In 1674, the Poles re-occupied the fortress, but a year later, on the order of Hospodar Dmitri Cantacuzino, it was demolished. Our countrymen again appeared in Targ Neamt at the end of the 17th century during the Moldavian expedition of King Jan III Sobieski. The fortress was seized not by force, but by deception, when the defenders received a forged letter allegedly written by the hospodar, ordering the surrender of the garrison. A slightly different version of the events was presented by the Romanian writer Constantin Negruzzi in his 1846 short story "Sobieski i Rumuni". The action of the piece takes place in 1686, when the Polish army reaches the Târgu Neamţ fortress, begins its siege and, as a result, captures the castle.

Jan III Sobieski pod murami Targu Neamt, ilustracja z książki Constantina Negruzziego


In the center of Romanian Bukovina, there are descendants of Poles who speak archaic Polish, who began to arrive in these areas at the end of the 18th century. They were miners from Bochnia and Wieliczka and highlanders from Czadca (now in Slovakia) and the vicinity of Czerniowce (now in Ukraine) who were looking for work. . They built a salt mine, cleared forests, built houses, churches, and railroads. Migration was facilitated by the fact that all these places were within the Habsburg Empire. The most numerous Polish communities live in villages located in the Suceava district - Plesza, Nowy Sołoniec, Kaczyka and Pojana Mikului. Bukowina Poles, whose number is estimated at almost 6,000. people constitute a very culturally integrated group. The Union of Poles in Romania and the Polish Homes organize meetings of Polish immigrants and Polish language lessons for children. In recent years, a lot of song and dance groups have been formed, taking part in folk festivals. One of the best known is the band called "Mała Pojana", established in 1990. Its members perform in highlander costumes, and their repertoire includes traditional Polish songs and dances.

Dom Polski w Suczawie

Moldova, Transnistria, Romania, Ukraine

August 2017

zamek w Sorokach

This summer I have planned a tour of historical Moldova. The matter was not that simple, because now these areas are within the borders of Moldova, Romania, Ukraine and the self-proclaimed Republic of Transnistria.

As an experiment, I decided to use the BlaBlaCar website, because I found a direct connection from Krakow to Balti. The driver turned out to be a Moldavian with Polish roots, which allowed us to speak Polish freely. Everything went as planned until we crossed the Polish-Ukrainian border, where we were stuck for seven hours. It turned my entire schedule upside down and had it not been for the kindness of Bogdan who gave me a lift to Sorok, I would have had to spend half the night at the bus station.



witamy w Mołdawii wszystko jasne jak dobrze wstać, skoro świt twierdza w Sorokach dach kryty gontem dziedziniec wewnętrzny blanki i baszty Dniestr widoczny z twierdzy widok na dzielnicę cygańską stroma uliczka Decebal tradycyjna studnia czerpanie wody nadzoruje sam Jezus kolorowe cegły i blacha nawet kwiaty są z blachy scenka uliczna w cygańskiej dzielnicy wybuchowa mieszanka stylów szczyt piękna czy brzydoty cyganie chętnie pozują do zdjęć czym chata bogata cygańska cerkiew św. Teodora Stratilata masywne mury świątyni rynna dzwonnica oryginalne nagrobki na cygańskim cmentarzu graj piękny cyganie ten to lubił wypić

The kilometer-long queue on the Polish-Ukrainian border meant that I started visiting Moldova from the city of Soroki. As everywhere in Moldova, here you can find numerous traces of Polishness. The stone fortress located on the Dniester River welcomed me in the rays of the rising sun. However, what the city is famous for is the Gypsy Quarter. Along the winding road that winds its way up the hill there are impressive houses-palaces of wealthy gypsies built in such a way as to attract attention by confirming the status of their owners.


kocur na polowaniu zweryfikuj swoją wagę cerkiew św. Pantelejmona przygotowania do ceremonii chrztu wino, dobre na wszystko ratusz miejski lodowa pokusa pomnik Stefana Wielkiego Łuk Triumfalny park Katedralny, na pierwszym planie dzwonnica prawosławna katedra Narodzenia Pańskiego ikonostas modlitwa jan paweł II Biblioteka Narodowa cerkiew Wniebowstąpienia Pana przed wejściem co łaska pomnik Bohaterów Komsomołu cerkiew św. Teodora Tiron w stylu rosyjsko-bizantyjskim Kaplica iwerskiej ikony Matki Bożej ikonostas biblia, stuła i krzyż graffiti graffiti czas coś przekąsić

On internet forums you can read that Chisinau is one of the ugliest cities in Europe. This is a lot of exaggeration, but in fact the capital of Moldova did not impress me with anything. Despite everything, the city has its own specific atmosphere, and besides, it is an excellent starting point for visiting the surrounding wineries. Most of the local attractions are located on Stephen the Great Boulevard. Personally, I like the Triumphal Arch and the Cathedral of the Nativity of Christ from the beginning of the 19th century.

Cricova Winery

czas zacząć zwiedzanie plan podziemnych korytarzy brama wejściowa nasze wehikuły herb winiarni podziemny korytarz Bulwar Szampana proces remuażu aż kusi, żeby spróbować kolekcje win pamiątkowa fotka wina putina oni tu byli pamiątkowa dedykacja Jurija Gagarina sala degustacyjna pokój dla VIP-ów

Nearby Chisinau, Cricova is the second largest wine factory in the world. The total length of all corridors is almost 120 km, and an additional attraction is sightseeing by car. Due to my education, I have seen many objects of this type in my life, but the Cricova exceeded my wildest expectations. I was particularly impressed by the collection of vintage wines, including one belonging to Vladimir Putin.



most graniczny pomiędzy Mołdawią, a Naddniestrzem dniestr przystanek autobusowy Raszków pomnik Lenina pomnik traktora naturalne źródełko malownicza ruina pozostałości dawnej synagogi detal architektoniczny przydrożny grób kościół św. Kajetana pamiątkowy krzyż panorama Dniestru

Picturesquely situated on the bank of the Dniester, Raskov is today a sleepy village in which only the Church of St. Kajetan. Therefore, I was not surprised by the surprised expressions of the border officials when I told them about the purpose of my trip. But they probably did not know that in the 17th century, Raskov was one of the last fortified settlements in the south of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. As Nobel Prize winner Sienkiewicz describes in the pages of the Trilogy, it is here that Azja Tuchabejowicz was impaled.


postsowiecki krajobraz liczydło budynek Rady bohaterowie wojenni pomnik Gagarina reklama sławiąca trud pracy trudno będzie pokochać to miasto weteran postkomunistyczny relief Miejski Dom Kultury flaga Naddniestrza i herb tyraspola pomnik marszałka Suworowa godło naddniestrza siedziba Rady Najwyższej Lenin z Samotraki memoriał Chwały za ojczyznę kaplica św. Grzegorza nawet rosyjski admirał może zostać świętym pomnik żołnierzy poległych w Afganistanie pomnik obrońców Naddniestrza most na Dniestrze

The capital of the self-proclaimed Republic of Transnistria, Tiraspol is a real relic of communism. There are monuments to General Suvorov and Lenin, a Soviet tank and lots of red flags and posters with a hammer and sickle. On the street, you can meet veterans decorated with orders, who do not hide their sympathies towards Putin. One of them, despite the reserve shown at the beginning, had a short chat with me and posed for a photo.


lokalna cisielka w drodze do pracy kapliczka dzwonnica cerkiew Wniebowzięcia Matki Boskiej pop przestronne wnętrze świątyn podniebienie kopuły kapliczka cerkiew Wniebowstąpienia ozdobne wejście Panu Bogu świeczkę pisanie życzeń święte obrazy dzwonnica prawosławne krzyże

It is hard to believe that in Kickany near Tiraspol there is the largest complex of religious architecture in Transnistria, the Ascension Monastery. The monastery complex, established in the second half of the 19th century, is a true oasis of peace and quiet. The life of the monks goes on a lazy rhythm, measured with daily prayers, and the atmosphere in the monastery is shared by the newcomers. However, I came back from the trip more relaxed than spiritual.



monastyr Galata kartusz cerkiew różnokolorowe cegły pomiędzy ślepymi arkadami obchody święta Zaśnięcia Bogurodzicy pop odprawiający nabożeństwo modlitwa wakacje w mieście wieża bramna monastyru Frumoasa cerkiew monastyr z daleka przypomina twierdzę brama monastyru Cetatuia gotycki budynek cerkiew w stylu mołdawskim ozdobny motyw splecionego sznura freski freski esplanada Elisabeta pomnik Władców Mołdawii socrealistyczny Dom Kultury fasada Muzeum Zjednoczenia hotel Traian scenka uliczna neobarokowy budynek Opery i Teatru Narodowego tympanon brama z dzwonnicą monastyru Golia cerkiew ikonostas środkowy rząd ikonostasu herb Hospodarstwa Mołdawskiego dom Iona Creangi monumentalny Pałac Kultury pomnik Stefana Wielkiego płaskorzeźba na cokole przedstawiająca klęskę Polaków w Lasach Bukowińskich zegar o średnicy ponad 3 metrów figura rycerza cerkiew Trzech Hierarchów kunsztownie zdobiona elewacja geometryczne wzory tarcza herbowa groby hospodarów mołdawskich Lupu i Cantemira bulwar Stefana Wielkiego prawosławna katedra modlitwa wierni w kolejce do ikony św. Paraskiewy modlitwa stara Metropolia kapitele trzy gracje wlazł kotek na płotek

Located in the historical Moldavia, Jassy is a real gem, and the main attractions are, of course, on the Stephen the Great boulevard. I was most impressed by the Orthodox Church of the Three Hierarchs , in which the delicious exterior sculptural decoration harmoniously combines Romanian and oriental motifs. Equally impressive is the monumental, neo-gothic Palace of Culture, which is the city's showcase.

Neamt Fortress

twierdza Neamt mury obronne most prowadzący do warowni w drodze do twierdzy pamiątkowa fotka dziedziniec wewnętrzny widok z kazamaty uzbrojenie armii mołdawskiej zamkowa kaplica < fragment ikonostasu panorama okolicy czas wracać do domu

I went to Targu Neamt especially to visit the ruins of a defensive castle built during the reign of Piotr Muszat. I took a bit off the route, but it was worth it because the stronghold looks very impressive even today. An additional attraction is the Polish accent, because the castle was manned by our troops at the end of the 17th century, which occupied it until the peace with Turkey was signed in Karlowitz.


dzwonnica stele cerkiew św. Mikołaja portret św. Mikołaja portal okienny cerkiew św. Demetriusza kartusz z herbem Mołdawii cerkiew Narodzenia św. Jana Chrzciciela wejście do świątyni kamienny krzyż tradycyjne zajęcie emeryta cerkiew Mirauti fresk trzeba dorabiać do emerytury pomnik Jana Pawła II pałac administracyjny konny pomnik Stefana III Wielkiego zamek tronowy festiwal Sztuki Średniowiecznej żołnierze z grupy rekonstrukcyjnej żołnierze z grupy rekonstrukcyjnej oczekiwanie na bitwę bezkrwawe starcie bezkrwawe starcie straż zamkowa ekwipunek pamiątkowa fotka dom ze wsi Kaczyka kuchnia karczma ze wsi Saru Dornei cerkiew Wniebowstąpienia Pańskiego ze wsi Vama wnętrze świątyni błogosławieństwo narzeczonych pamiątkowa fotka

Suceava, like Jassy, ​​is located in historical Moldova. The Mortuary Fortress, which was unsuccessfully besieged by Poles under the leadership of King Jan Olbracht, dominates the town at the end of the 15th century. However, what distinguishes Suceava are the fortified monasteries surrounding it, which served as fortresses during the period of Turkish domination. The monastery of St. John the New, although its richly decorated interior was just a foretaste of what I saw in the painted monasteries of Bukovina.

Painted monasteries

kapliczka poranna kawa suweniry jagody monastyr Voronet malowidła pokrywają całą elewację okno ulatująca dusza przedstawienie Sądu Ostatecznego szatan w drodze do raju pamiątkowa fotka wnętrze świątyni ikonostas górny rząd ikonostasu Chrystus Pantokrator po mszy kompleks klasztorny od strony zachodniej świadectwo wiary pamiątki dla turystów trdycyjna studnia nonastyr Humorulu kompleks klasztorny malowidła pokrywają całą elewację trzej królowie św. Jerzy zabijający smok wieża dzwonnica ikonostas sklepienie freski freski widok z dzwonnicy monastyr Moldovita malowidła na ścianie południowej trójkonchowa apsyda mnich działa oblężnicze oblężenie Konstantynopola holy water mury obronne monastyru Sucevita dziedziniec klasztorny przedsionek malowidła na ścianie południowej patriarchowie Chrustus Pantokrator cerkiew Patrauti pamiątkowa fotka gonty kawalkada Konstantyna Wielkiego Stefan Wielki wręczający Chrystusowi model cerkwi

The weather was not good that day, which is a pity because the painted churches of Bukovina would then look even more beautiful. All the monasteries that I visited are on the Unesco List, and no wonder, because the 16th-century frescoes covering the facades all over them look phenomenal. They all have a similar style, but I was most enchanted by the Voronet monastery with its amazing, painterly vision of the Last Judgment.



dworzec kolejowy zegar stylowa kamienica hotel Bristol monumentalna brama Pałacu Metropolitów Bukowińskich pałacu Metropolitów Bukowińskich prawe skrzydło z seminarium i cerkwią Trzech Świętych Hierarchów cerkiew Zaśnięcia Marii Panny zapowiedzi ratusz muzeum sztuki secesyjna majolika bank detale elewacji bulwar Kobylańskiej gołębie coffee to go detal architektoniczny teatr detale elewacji atlasi sobór katedralny św. Ducha bulwar Kobylańskiej nocą wieczorna kawka

Taking advantage of the waiting time for the night train to Lviv, I decided to visit Chernivtsi. However, three hours is not enough to see anything, especially in the late afternoon. I found out about it personally when I kissed the door handle at the entrance to the most valuable monument in Chernivtsi, the palace of the metropolitans of Bukovina and Dalmatia. However, the city itself, with its 19th century buildings, seemed gray and sad, perhaps due to the weather and the falling dusk.


wszystko jasne pomnik Adama Mickiewicza fronton pomik Szewczenki i kościół św. Piotra i Pawła opera lwowska neoklasyczny tympanon scenka rodzajowa wieża katedralna galicyjska Kasa Oszczędności detale kopuły pomnik kozaka Jana Podkowy kościół św. Piotra i Pawła cukiernia Leopolis coffee to go fontanna Diany putta pijana wiśnia nalewki wiśniowe na zdrowie balkon kamienicy Baczewskich pamiątkowa fotka fasada kamienicy Heppnerowskiej renesansowy portal fotograf rynek popołudniowa kawka katedra Łacińska apostoł kruchta nawa główna sklepienie modlitwa latarnia kaplicy Boimów kaplica Boimów głowa lwa na kolumnie detale elewacji

I like to come back to the same places after many years, because then you can look at everything from a distance. I had half a day at my disposal, so I was able to wander the Lviv old town without any rush. Much has not changed here since my last visit four years ago. As before, I was delighted with the old town square, the Latin Cathedral and the Boim Chapel. I finished my tour by tasting cherry liqueur and delicious coffee in tradicional ukrainian cafe.

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